Enterprise Innovation Institute

Preserving Low Earth Orbit in the Face of New Generation Risks and Opportunities

Low Earth Orbit (LEO), the region of space within approximately 2,000 kilometers from the Earth’s surface, has been a crucial zone for various space activities, including satellite deployment, space exploration, and scientific research. However, as the space industry evolves and more actors become involved, a new generation of risks and opportunities has emerged that demands careful consideration to ensure the sustainable use and preservation of this critical orbital environment.


The Evolving Landscape of LEO

The last few decades have witnessed an exponential increase in the number of satellites and space assets launched into LEO. The rise of small satellites, mega-constellations, and commercial ventures has led to a crowding of this limited orbital space. While this technological revolution has enabled enhanced global communication, navigation, and remote sensing capabilities, it has also introduced a set of challenges that need to be addressed to preserve LEO for future generations.


New Generation Risks

  1. Space Debris: One of the most pressing challenges in LEO is the proliferation of space debris. Non-functioning satellites spent rocket stages, and debris from previous collisions pose a significant threat to operational satellites and spacecraft. The increasing density of debris raises the likelihood of collisions, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of more debris generation. Addressing this risk requires effective debris mitigation strategies, such as deorbiting defunct satellites and designing satellites for end-of-life disposal.
  2. Collision Risk: With the growing number of active satellites and space assets, the probability of collisions has risen substantially. Even small pieces of debris can cause significant damage to operational satellites. To mitigate this risk, accurate tracking and monitoring systems are essential, along with protocols for collision avoidance maneuvers when necessary.
  3. Spectrum Congestion: The electromagnetic spectrum is a limited resource, and the proliferation of satellites for communication and remote sensing purposes has led to concerns about spectrum congestion. Efficient spectrum allocation and utilization, along with international cooperation, are crucial to avoid interference and ensure fair access to this resource.


New Generation Opportunities

  1. Technological Innovation: The challenges posed by the changing landscape of LEO have driven technological innovation. Researchers and companies are exploring advanced materials, propulsion systems, and satellite architectures that can enable more sustainable and efficient space operations. For instance, the development of electric propulsion systems can extend the operational lifetime of satellites and improve their maneuverability.
  2. On-Orbit Servicing: On-orbit servicing and refueling technologies have the potential to revolutionize space operations. By enabling the repair and refueling of satellites, these technologies can extend their lifespan and reduce the need for constant replacement launches, thereby contributing to a reduction in space debris.
  3. International Collaboration: The shared interest in preserving LEO has prompted international collaboration to address the challenges collectively. Initiatives such as the Space Data Association (SDA) and the Consortium for Execution of Rendezvous and Servicing Operations (CONFERS) aim to establish best practices and guidelines for responsible space operations.



As LEO becomes increasingly congested and contested, it is imperative to proactively address the new generation of risks and opportunities it presents. The space community must work collaboratively to develop and implement sustainable practices that mitigate the risks associated with space debris, collision events, and spectrum congestion. Simultaneously, leveraging technological innovation and international cooperation will pave the way for a future where LEO continues to serve as a valuable resource for communication, scientific research, and space exploration. By preserving Low Earth Orbit, we ensure the longevity and viability of our presence in space for generations to come.

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